Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Some consideration about his poetry and his philosophy

Hölderlin: some consideration about his poetry and his philosophy

Friedrich Holderlin has long been recognized as one of the greatest poets of the German language, but little recognition of his achievements dignified Holderlin's lifetime. Only his epistolary novel, 'Hyperion', and a handful of his poems received recognition during his life. He discovered his own poetic voice in the years between 1796 and 1800 and in the relatively short period of stability that remained to him- the later six years until insanity overwhelmed him in 1806- he produced some of the most intense and beautiful lyric poems ever written not only in the German language but in the history of poetry. Unlike many of his friends and peers, Holderlin never enjoyed the economic and emotional security connected with a university position or a position in government- the fact we have to understand is that his aspiration to become a poet only grew stronger as his failures in the "business" world accumulated. The growing determination to be a poet is a decisive factor in Holderlin's poetry, and 'determination' is meant here not only as the human act of volition but the ontic event of one coming into one's own.
The poetry of Holderlin exerts an influence like the pull of a giant wayward star; so strong has been its allure that one feels compelled to ask why Holderlin's work captivate to this day so many major poets and philosophers...what is it about this poet that speaks with such tremendous force to us today? The answer, I think, lies in Holderlin's experience of modernity. As he wrote in "The poet's calling", we live in a world in which "everything divine" has been "utilized" for too long, and "all the heavenly powers...thrown away." We think we can grasp the world, that we can "name all the stars in heaven", but we have lost our way to the divine. This absence, this deep sense of loss that underlies the unease of modern Western culture, is the basis of Holderlin's work and power.

The Poet and the Beauty

The years of his writings, roughly 1795- 1803, saw the blossoming of early German romanticism through the writings of Novalis, Schelling, Friedrich and August Schlegel, Tieck and others; building on the eighteenth century contributions of Herder and Goethe, this generation of thinkers held enormous faith in "the word", in the medium of language, and never tired of exploring the connection between what Germans call 'Dichtung' (the creative writing) and the search for a level of atmosphere of culture that might suggest in the present that cultural unity that moderns have ascribed to the ancient Greeks. But unlike the proponents of romanticism who came to be known as the Jena school, Holderlin's explorations were conducted on his own, since neither Schiller nor Goethe nor anyone else has much to do with the direction taken by him in the practice of the poet's vocation. He insisted greatly also on the divinity of poetry because his faith could not allow that poetry is a closed, singularly mortal act: so the precondition for poetry is the receptive, pious soul, which is given inspiration in the tenuous, ever- threatened relation between men and their Gods.
The poet's interest in the remote past, in this case ancient Greece, is not academic: though he shared with academics an interest in learning from and about the past, here he went beyond the norm and addressed the issue of ancient culture's preconditions as the preconditions of all culture. This poet's motivation in going back to the ancients were more in the nature of approaching what he called "the source", than longing for a golden age.
A basic attitude of faith is the prerequisite for poetry, in the sense that the poet must acknowledge the existence of something higher than man. "To the Fates" is one of Holderlin's most widely known poems; even the title suggests the necessity of faith, for the poet is addressing the fates as deities who are capable of governing the world.
So, remembrance of the divine is perhaps the key theme in Holderlin's work. And, whether manifest in a memory of the sun gone down, or of childhood or the homeland, or of the poet's song or of ancient Greece, it is always accompanied by the acute consciousness that we- as individuals and a community- are not in armony with the Gods: for only through remembrance can we recognize what we lack in the present.
Holderlin's sense of loss and destitution was not simply due to a personal predilection for suffering, but was a part of a larger cultural phenomenon that arose from powerful currents seething under the Enlightenment- an increasing alienation from nature and a growing sense of disenchantment in the face of a triumphant rationality and waning traditions and values. Schiller described modern human beings as "stunted plants that show only a feeble vestige of their nature." Holderlin, for his part, reacted to these currents with an almost overwhelming longing for lost wholeness.
Finally, instead of simply longing for fullness as in his early poetry, Holderlin's final poetry acts as a mediator between the Gods, who seem to have the power to grant us finally wholeness, and human beings. For although we may long for complete union with the Gods and nature, we could not bear their intensity- the heavenly fire of this union would obliterate us as individual men. Thus the Gods, that we not perish form divine fullness and might "long enjoy the light", also give us "divine sorrow". But we only know deep sorrow because the poets have brought their "suitable hands" to "interpret the holy lore" and sing us traces of the fled Gods: so, the poet's song reminds us of the wholeness we have lost.
Holderlin used his poetry to work out a complex conception of the way in which we imaginatively and creatively respond to the conflicting tendencies in our self-conscious lives that arise out of this elemental nature of self- consciousness: since all consciousness require a judgemental articulation of this pre-reflective unity of "being"- again, a primordial division of that which is originally undivided- we are, as it were, intuitively aware of this unity of "being" in our consciousness of the world, and it remains a presence in our conscious lives, holding out the promise of a restored unity of the divisions that occur as necessary conditions of our leading self-conscious lives at all. And, in apprehension of beauty we get an inkling of what that unity might be like as the "supersensible" ground of both nature and freedom, and such apprehension of beauty prompt us to take an interest in matters to which we might otherwise be blind. The apprehension of beauty, best mediated by the poet, unites that would otherwise be only fragmented pieces of nature or our temporally extended lives and, as he put in the final line of his poem 'Remembrance': "But what is lasting the poets provide."

Nature and mankind

He also developed a distinctive viewpoint on the relationship between humankind and the rest of nature. His ideas are of particular interest because he yearned for an end to human suffering, but was also firmly convinced that humankind was inevitably destined to be separated from nature, and thereby destined to endure suffering. Holderlin envisioned a positive role for humanity in cosmic evolution, a role which has significant implications for both human nature and cultural evolution. Holderlin’s conception of the human-nature relationship as part of an unfolding process of cosmological change seems to be of great relevance today, an age that is characterized by belief in the meaninglessness of human existence, and by concern about the way that we have altered the pre-human conditions of the Earth. Holderlin’s views provide a unique perspective on modernity that is worthy of serious consideration.
The starting point of Holderlin’s philosophy is that there must be a basic unknowable reality which precedes self-consciousness wherein subjects and objects are not in existence but are both part of a ‘blessed unity of being’. He describes this unity as: “Where subject and object simply are, and not just partially, united…only there and nowhere else can there be talk of being.” He argues that the ‘blessed unity of being’ (which he also refers to as ‘nature’) is responsible for the coming into existence of humanity through using its power to initiate a division of itself into subjects and objects. This division of being causes the emergence of judgement. Holderlin states that, “ ‘I am I’ is the most fitting example of this concept of judgement…[as] it sets itself in opposition to the not-I, not in opposition to itself.”
The division means that human beings are not capable of actions that are independent of nature; Holderlin states that, “all the streams of human activity have their source in nature.” It is revealing to compare this claim with the words of Holderlin’s character Hyperion, “What is man? – so I might begin; how does it happen that the world contains such a thing, which ferments like a chaos or moulders like a rotten tree, and never grows to ripeness? How can Nature tolerate this sour grape among her sweet clusters?”
For Holderlin, man is the ‘violent’ being, whose coming into existence in opposition to the rest of nature was initiated by nature. Holderlin sees this opposition between man and the rest of nature as culminating in modernity – an era that he claims is characterised by the absence of the Gods. In 'Bread and wine' Holderlin writes: “Though the Gods are living, over our heads they live, up in a different world…Little they seem to care whether we live or do not.”
Holderlin’s position is that as nature created the separation, only nature can bring the separation to an end. He sees this process of separation and reconnection as part of a broader cosmic picture wherein nature is an unfolding organism rather than a huge mechanism. This organismic view enables him to envision teleological processes in nature and a hope for human destiny, a possibility of return into the nature's arms to regain the primeval wholeness.

The Poet and the Philosophers

His philosophical importance has only surfaced more recently; although Schelling and Hegel acknowledged him early as their equal, for a long time Holderlin's philosophical position remained unknown outside the small circle of his friends even if, for Holderlin, there was no separation of poetry from truth and, therefore, no essential difference between poetry and philosophy. However, it was a philosopher who set the stage for the Holderlin renaissance in our century: when Friedrich Nietzsche, in his 'Untimely Meditations', launched a scathing attack on German philistine culture, he presented the "glorious Holderlin" as an antidote to the prevalent burgeois values. Holderlin had in fact felt deeply the modern crisis of values and had been filled with longing for a cultural and religious renewal. Nietzsche saw Holderlin as a kindred spirit who had, however, been crushed by the adversity of his own time. Holderlinean themes reverbrated in Nietzsche's writings and seemed to point to deep affinities between their thoughts and lives that found a resonance with his readers: "Holderlin's work was more understandable after being illustrated by Nietzsche."
Moreover, inspired by Nietzsche's diagnosis of European culture, the Stefan George circle aimed at cultural renewal through the formation of a "new league" of spiritual aristocracy that would function as the germ cell of a new mythologic- aesthetic culture. Through an aesthetics modeled on French Symbolism, George intended to elevate art once again on a sacred level. After the turn of century, Holderlin rapidly became the exemplary prophet of George's aesthetic utopianism.
Finally, Heidegger's reception of Holderlin is perhaps unique. Beginning with his lecture course on the hymns "Germania" and "The Rhine", Heidegger entered into a dialogue with the poet that continued throughouth his life: "My thinking stands in an unavoidable relationship to the poetry of Holderlin." More specifically, after the attempt in 'Being and Time' to elucidate the meaning of "being" through recourse to the implicit understanding of being that characterizes human existence, Heidegger turned away from the language of philosophy and assigned to art, and to poetry in particular, the role of bringing us into proximity with being. Heidegger's theory of language, in particular in his interpretation of this poet, has brought so the poetry to the forefront of philosophical thought after more than two millenia of nearly unanimous, but also highly problematic, philosophical ejection of poetry from the realm of knowledge and truth. Then, in his subsequent writings, Heidegger interpretated the history of metaphisic from Plato to Hegel as the history of the forgetting of being and saw Holderlin's hymns as marking the advent of another history: he interpreted Holderlin's lament of the absence of the Gods in the light of this forgetfulness and Holderlin's call for the Gods' return as a readiness for a new thinking in the nearness of being. In their writings the ancients dealt with the question of being on manifold levels, with conception of Nature and Gods that modern man has abandoned. "The historical destination of philosophy culminates in the recognition of the necessity of gaining a hearing for Holderlin's word."
Indeed, Peacock argues that Holderlin thinks that: “a godless age is part of a divine mystery, it is as necessary as day, ordained by a higher power.” Furthermore, Heidegger claims that the Gods are still present, despite their absence: “man who, even with his most exulted thought could hardly penetrate to their Being, even though, with the same grandeur as at all time, they were somehow there."
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Friedrich Hölderlin: El cementerio

“…en la umbría donde pacen los corzos,
extrañas se me hacen y muertas
las almas venturosas.”


“El cementerio”

Silencioso lugar verdeante de hierba joven,
Donde yacen hombre y mujer y se yerguen las cruces,
Adonde van acompañados los amigos,
Donde fulguran en claro vidrio las ventanas.
Cuando en ti fulge la alta llama del cielo
A mediodía, cuando la primavera te frecuenta y se demora
Y va la espiritual nube húmeda y gris,
Con hermosura el día escapa dulcemente.
Qué tranquilidad hay cerca del muro grisáceo
Encima del cual pende un árbol con frutos;
Negror mojado de rocío, follaje todo duelo;
Pero los frutos son densos preciosamente.
Hay en la iglesia una tranquilidad oscura
Y también el altar en esa noche se recoge;
Aún allá quedan varias cosas hermosas,
Mas en verano canta alguna cigarra en el campo.
Allí, cuando las oraciones del pastor se escuchan
En tanto al lado está el grupo de amigos
Que con el muerto van, qué vida singular
Y qué espíritu, devotamente descuidado.

Friedrich Hörderlin: Traducción de Luis Cernuda

Poema original en alemán:

“Der Kirchhof”
Du stiller Ort, der grünt mit jungem Grase,
Da liegen Mann und Frau, und Kreuze stehn,
Wohin hinaus geleitet Freunde gehn,
Wo Fenster sind glänzend mit hellem Glase.
Wenn glänzt an dir des Himmels hohe Leuchte
Des Mittags, wann der Frühling dort oft weilt,
Wenn geistige Wolke dort, die graue, feuchte,
Wenn sanft der Tag vorbei mit Schönheit eilt!
Wie still ists nicht an jener grauen Mauer,
Wo drüber her ein Baum mit Früchten hängt;
Mit schwarzen tauigen, und Laub voll Trauer,
Die Früchte aber sind sehr schön gedrängt.
Dort in der Kirch’ ist eine dunkle Stille
Und der Altar ist auch in dieser Nacht geringe,
Noch sind darin einige schöne Dinge,
Im Sommer aber singt auf Feldern manche Grille.
Wenn einer dort Reden des Pfarrherrn hört,
Indes die Schar der Freunde steht daneben,
Die mit dem Toten sind, welch eignes Leben
Und welcher Geist, und fromm sein ungestört.

Friedrich Hölderlin
Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin, uno de los más grandes poetas líricos alemanes, nació en Lauffen am Neckar , Wurtemberg, el 20 de marzo de 1770.
Murió tras pasar los casi cuarenta últimos años de su vida, víctima de una grave demencia, el 7 de junio de 1843.

También de Friedrich Hölderlin en este blog:
“Friedrich Hölderlin: El joven a sus juiciosos consejeros”: AQUÍ
“Recordando a Friedrich Hölderlin: A las parcas”: AQUÍ
“Friedrich Hölderlin: Himno a la Libertad”: AQUÍ
“Friedrich Hölderlin: El invierno”: AQUÍ
“Recordando a Friedrich Hölderlin: La despedida”: AQUÍ 
“Friedrich Hölderlin: A Hércules”: AQUÍ
“Recordando a Friedrich Hölderlin: Grecia”: AQUÍ 
*La fotografía es del cementerio de Comillas, en Cantabria.


La poesía que se solidariza con el infortunio no puede conformarse con la perfección formal, sino que ha de tender hacia la verdad, interpretada no ya como Absoluto moral, sino como realidad en el mundo, con su carga de injusticia y fealdad. 
En este sentido, la fealdad no es una categoría estética, sino la posibilidad de superar el mal, asumiendo su lastre y ofreciendo a sus víctimas la palabra que se les negó, permitiendo que hablen desde su inconcebible dolor, mitigando el olvido al que están expuestas, combatiendo la ignominia de arrojar un manto de silencio sobre los que murieron injustamente. La poesía sólo puede conservar su tensión hacia el futuro, recogiendo la miseria del pasado. La desdicha del inocente nunca es hermosa, pero la poesía está comprometida con su recuperación.
En 1767, Lessing estudia en el Laocoonte la fealdad como categoría específica, pero reserva su manifestación al ámbito de la poesía, ya que entiende que la literatura, por su naturaleza temporal, diluye lo grotesco o repugnante, mientras que en las artes figurativas su presencia perdura en el espacio. En 1795, Friedrich Schlegel escribe Sobre el estudio de la poesía griega, donde apunta que la fealdad es uno de los rasgos definitorios del arte moderno. Ya no es la armonía, sino la intensidad, el dramatismo o la originalidad lo que inspira al artista. Schlegel cita a Shakespeare, cuyas obras no escatiman la violencia, lo trágico o lo grotesco. Sus personajes no conocen la armonía, sino que viven acosados por la desesperación, la impotencia o el fracaso.
Hölderlin afirma que sólo merecen el nombre de arte las obras capaces de expresar la experiencia del dolor. Pese a enloquecer, continúa escribiendo, reflejando en sus Poemas de la locura el anhelo de felicidad, maltratado por la incertidumbre y el sentimiento de indigencia que aflige al ser humano, cuando no se advierte la presencia utópica del otro, no ya como antagonista, sino como manifestación del Espíritu. 
Visión es una expresión de este conflicto: 
Oscura, cerrada, parece a menudo la interioridad del mundo
 Sin esperanza, lleno de dudas, el sentido de los hombres 
Mas el esplendor de la Naturaleza alegra sus días 
Y lejana yace la oscura pregunta de la duda.  
Es la época más dolorosa de su existencia, su largo viaje por la locura, pero el desorden mental no impide que se manifieste la esperanza de un mañana. En Primavera, las estaciones no aparecen como repetición, sino como tensión hacia el futuro. 
Nuestra vida desea al porvenir abrirse
Con flores, señal de alegres días 
cubrir parece la tierra y el gran valle 
Alejando la Primavera de todo signo doloroso.
La locura no es éxtasis, noche sagrada o inspiración divina, sino un estado de confusión y pérdida, un tiempo de destrucción acotado por la repetición, la angustia y el miedo. En sus últimos años, Hölderlin es un loco (a fin de cuentas, un hombre limitado por su experiencia o, más exactamente, desorganizado por su experiencia), pero en sus poemas, oponiendo al delirio la secreta perseverancia de la razón, se manifiesta el conflicto matricial entre un presente desdichado y un mañana que apenas se vislumbra, pero que en cierta medida ya acontece. Lo inmediato no puede ser la última palabra. Auschwitz no es la verdad, sino el fracaso del hombre en su devenir histórico. Hay otros fracasos, otros escándalos, donde -al menos temporalmente- triunfa la inhumanidad, lo monstruoso.
Lo esencial es que el mal carece de la fuerza necesaria para destruir el impulso teleológico de la conciencia. La esperanza no es una ilusión, sino la forma en que el hombre se enfrenta al tiempo y la injusticia. Es un estar en el tiempo, que se realiza en el tiempo y fuera del tiempo, en el “todavía no” (Ernst Bloch), cuya inminencia nunca cesa, pues si se hiciera presente, perdería su impulso. Hölderlin firma sus poemas con cien años de antelación o con doscientos de retraso. No es ofuscación, sino anticipación de la eternidad, de un más allá que extiende el presente hacia una perfección aplazada. Pese a su innegable prestigio, la incredulidad es más débil que la esperanza. Hay más audacia en la fe que en su negación, como nos recuerda Ionesco en sus Diarios.
En el borrador de una carta sin fecha, Hölderlin escribe: “Estoy maduro no para la paz muerta de la tumba, sino para una vida más feliz, más tranquila que ésta; incluso espero no estar largo tiempo ya sobre esta tierra, de la que ni siquiera las alegrías me atraen; espero que las tijeras fatales de la Parca vengan a cortar el hilo de mi vida, y en verdad puedo decir que espero el fin con tranquilidad, incluso con placer y alegría”. No hay en estas palabras resentimiento ni odio hacia la vida real, con su carga de finitud y servidumbre. No es “ilusión”, “resentimiento” ni “platonismo para el pueblo” (Nietzsche), sino experiencia del dolor transmutada en esperanza. Esperanza que celebra la vida, a pesar de su imperfección, a pesar del declive del cuerpo y del naufragio de la razón. 
Los Poemas de la locura son una iluminación, pero su luz no procede de lo irracional, sino de la insensatez de la esperanza, que contempla el dolor y no renuncia a la vida; que soporta la infamia y aún cree en la justicia; que aguanta el fracaso y no se cansa de celebrar la persistencia de lo posible. Sólo esta forma de arte puede contener la realización histórica del mal y al mismo tiempo contribuir a su superación moral y teleológica. RAFAEL NARBONA
Todas las colaboraciones de Rafael Narbona como crítico literario de El Cultural de El MUNDO en: